|Auteur||Weiss Solís, David (firstname.lastname@example.org)|
|Titre||Analysis of genomewide expression proﬁles of thyroid tumors and of their in vitro models|
|Département||F204 - Faculté de médecine - Sciences biomédicales (email@example.com)|
|Intitulé du diplôme||Doctorat en sciences biomédicales|
|Date de défense||2009-05-18|
Eizirik, Decio (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Mélot, Christian (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Moreau, Yves (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Rooman, Marianne (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Rousset, Bernard (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Sotiriou, Christos (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Vassart, Gilbert (Président du jury/Committee Chair)
Bersini, Hugues (Promoteur/Director)
Detours, Vincent (Promoteur/Director)
Maenhaut, Carine (Promoteur/Director)
|Mots-clés||bioinfiormatics, experimental models, in vitro models, gene expression, thyroid, thyroid tumors, microarray, thyroid tumorigenesis|
|Résumé||New technologies to probe the global output of the normal and cancer genomes have recently reached widespread use. The resulting genomewide gene expression profiles, e.g, a gene expression measurement per gene and per tissue sample, remain challenging to analyze and interpret, but have already provided new insights into the pathophysiology of cancer and towards personalized care.
In vitro cell culture-based experimental models are used to elucidate cancer onset and progression because experimentation in humans is difficult practically and ethically unacceptable, and because they provide simplified, reproducible and controlled systems to test hypotheses. The thyroid tumors and their in vitro experimental models are particularly suited to compare the molecular phenotypes of experimental models and tumors. From one type of cell, the thyrocyte, at least five distinct benign and malignant tumors can arise. In addition, many immortalized tumor-derived cell lines and primary cultures models of these cells exist.
This thesis has focused on the bioinformatic comparison of these in vitro models to the in vivo tumors, from the point of view of their gene expression profiles, to gain insight into the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors, and of tumors in general.
In a first study, we showed that primary cultures of freshly isolated normal thyroid cells where proliferation and differentiation through the TSHR/cAMP pathway was chronically activated experimentally resemble specifically the autonomous thyroid adenomas, a type of benign thyroid tumor, and provide insight into a general mechanism of tumor progression: the suppression of negative feedbacks that normally restrain excessive cell division.
Subsequently, we found that immortalized thyroid tumor-derived cell lines have converged to a common phenotype regardless of their tumor subtype of origin. A TSHR/cAMP thyroid cell differentiation signature, derived from data obtained for the first study, was used to show that the cell lines were dedifferentiated. Accordingly, we showed that the cell lines resemble most the phenotype of the more dedifferentiated, clinically aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancers.
Finally, using large databases of gene expression profiles publicly available, we extended the comparison of cell lines and tumors to cancers of five other organs: breast, colon, kidney, ovary and lung. We discuss the correct use of these models and advance an hypothesis regarding the nature of the state to which these cells have converged: they could represent a surviving subpopulation of tumors cells, cancer stem cells, capable of initiating and maintaining tumor growth.
As other technologies designed to perturb the genome in experimental models are emerging, careful characterization and validation of the experimental models are needed to extrapolate the results in vivo.