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|Auteur||Abboud, Shérine (email@example.com)|
|Titre||Susceptibility Genes in Ischemic Stroke and Intracranial Atherosclerosis. Clinical and Autopsy Studies|
|Département||F201 - Faculté de médecine - Médecine|
|Intitulé du diplôme||Doctorat en Sciences médicales|
|Date de défense||2009-06-25|
Brion, Jean-Pierre (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
De Deyn, Peter (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Jamain, Stephane (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Motte, Serge (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Abramowicz, Marc (Membre du jury/Committee Member)
Vassart, Gilbert (Président du jury/Committee Chair)
Pandolfo, Massimo (Promoteur/Director)
Laaksonen, Reijo (Promoteur/Director)
|Mots-clés||Stroke intracranial atherosclerosis genetic|
|Résumé||Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the most common cause of disability in the world. To relieve the heavy burden of stroke, we need to understand the mechanisms that will form the basis of improved prevention and treatment. Epidemiological studies have found evidence for a genetic influence on the common form of stroke. However the genetic of stroke is still in its infancy. Subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis is sometime a predisposing factor for ischemic stroke (IS). This study was carried out to elucidate genetic factors influencing the complex phenotype of IS and subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis.
In the Belgium Stroke Study (BSS), we collected 237 middle-aged (45-60 yrs) patients with small vessel occlusion (SVO) or large vessel atherosclerosis (LVA) IS, according to the Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria, 326 ethnicity and gender matched subjects were used as controls. We tested variants in cholesterol-related candidate genes (sterol regulatory element binding protein, SREBP, SREBP-cleavage activating protein, SCAP, Apolipoprotein E, APOE, and Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, PCSKA) for association with IS. Significant gene-IS associations were further tested in a Finnish autopsy collection of 1004 cases with a quantitative assessment of atherosclerosis in the circle of Willis.
While we could not detect any significant association between polymorphisms in the SREBP and SCAP genes and IS, we found evidence for association at the APOE and PCSK9 loci. The APOE ε4+ genotype was related to a more severe intracranial atherosclerosis score in men, and within the most common APOE ε3/ε3 genotype group a higher risk of IS was associated with the G-allele at the -219G/T promoter polymorphisms. At PCSK9, the minor allele (G) of the tagging E670G polymorphism appeared as a significant predictor of LVA (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 1.25-9.85; p = 0.017). Accordingly, in the Finnish autopsy series, G-allele carriers tended to have more severe allele copy number-dependent (p=0.095) atherosclerosis in the circle of Willis and in its branches.
Our findings in this unique combination of clinical and autopsy data suggest a multifaceted role of apoE on the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. The APOE ε4+ genotype did not predict the risk of IS, but was associated with severity of subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis in men. In contrast, the promoter variants affecting apoE expression were significant predictors of IS, suggesting that quantitative rather than qualitative variation of apoE is related to IS independently of subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PCSK9 associates with the risk of LVA stroke subtype, and suggest that the risk is related to the severity of the underlying intracranial atherosclerosis.
Atherogenesis is considered as an active, inflammatory process, interleukin (IL)-18 a proinflammatory cytokine, is thought to play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and more specifically in plaque rupture. We genotyped four haplotype tagging polymorphisms at the IL18 gene in the BSS and the Finnish autopsy series. The minor alleles of the IL18 -607 and +127 polymorphisms, as well as the haplotype carrying both minor alleles, associated with IS after adjustment for all cardiovascular risk factors. No association was seen with the development of subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest that variation in the IL18 gene influences the acute atherosclerotic IS event, but not the previous development of subclinical intracranial atherosclerosis, suggesting a causal role of IL18 in the vulnerability of cerebral arterial atherosclerotic plaques to acute rupture and subsequent thrombosis.